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                                            Juan Monsalve
“If I knew that somebody had to remove benefit from which I danced, I would dance!”  San  Francisco Javier.
                An approach to the life and work of San Francisco Javier requires of a sieve to discern the historical thing of the meta-historical, or spiritual, human and the properly scenic thing. In XVI century, the seas of East were under the Portuguese empire; with methods like “Roma imperial” and “tabula rasa” of the Inquisition, they dominate the historical panorama of those times. The Portuguese conquerors in the Eastern Indians were not very different from the Spaniards in the Western Indians. The great navigators open the routes that expanded the Portuguese, English and Spanish empires of that time. Europe expands in the Indians through the Spanish and Portuguese empires, being the Portuguese the most powerful. The intention of Portuguese Corona in East has like objective the possession of overseas territories, and the dominion of the markets; mainly of the market of the species. By this ways the religious missions register within the colonial trips of Portugal; by this time the Company of Jesus, San Francisco Javier and San Ignacio de Loyola, has revolutionized the archaic methods of the Roman Church, like they used to say "enter by they’re door, to make them leave by his ".
            In XVI century we found some of the roots of the contemporary anthropology. Nowadays the "conejillos de Indias", the "good savages" of the European metropolis, cannot be seen like the Indian, yellow or black slaves of long ago, in a predominant white race. Although the empires continue existing nowadays, and with more globalized methods, with a postmodern slavery, the dialogue of cultures and religions breaks through throughout the world. Today we can’t reproduce or justify the atrocities of the Spanish or Portuguese conquest, of the Eastern or Western Indians, nor the less infamies of the Inquisition of that time. The times changed. The barbarism of those times (as the barbarism of now) teaches to us to transform, in the art, the horror in mercy and love, as outside the intention of the old Greek tragedy, and the perennial ideal of the drama. In this way, this play of the life of San Francisco Javier goes beyond the historical context and receives a new dimension.
         The Missionary of East was after the tracks of the apostle Santo Tomás (57d.C.), The peacock of India; and between both they teach, as spiritual argonauts, to cross the last border, to orient us by the Way of the East, that is the same Yellow Path, the one of the rising sun, where his father Santo Tomás was won. In the crossroads of the Four Paths of the World, in the original cross, Francisco Javier chooses the Eastern way when he pray to the Lord to send him to India (Tomás did not want to go to India, because it was know as the land of the pagans). The trips of San Francisco Javier, like the trips of Marco Polo, opened the doors from the East to the West, they brought to Europe the first news of the world. As Royal traveler he takes the insignes of the Roman Church, the King of Portugal, and the mission of the Company of Jesus, left to him by San Ignacio de Loyola; but, mainly, as traveler, it takes the good new of Jesus Christ until the borders of the known world until then. Beginning in India goes to Malaca, from there to Maluco (Molucas Islands), soon to Japan, where it returns to India, to undertake its last expedition, and die in the doors of China. Its Earth trip does not have limit, its goal is further on. Her saga, as arcane Ulisses, has like Itaca, the Divine Jerusalem.
        Its route is the one of the traveler saint, the one of the Jesus of the sandals, who said: "I am the path, the truth and the life". He is a fond of travelling, light of luggage, with patent of foreigner and few friends. Its spiritual joy radiates the breath of the Holy Spirit, who blows in the four ways of the world. Undressed of everything "he lose his life to gain it", in a strange land. Foreigner in any place, walks without a mother country, without rest, between extreme dangers: pirate storms on the high seas, assaults, inclemency’s of the winter, whips of the monsoon, ravenous hungers, and religious persecutions. Crossing the limit of the human, it takes us to the territory of the divine, where the power of God it’s manifested by the miracles, that he doesn’t please to recognize. For Francisco Javier, the way is Jesus; and its goal: the House of the Father. And non Jesus like somebody ideal, but like somebody real, that is to say, attainable one in its spiritual life of Argonaut.
          In order to stage the life of saint, like the one of San Francisco Javier, or somebody extraordinary one, like the life of a hero (or antihero, as it were), is not enough to track the biographical history, nor data, but the spirit who moved it, that impelled it until the borders of the orb. When reading the biographies, and the writings of San Francisco Javier, to write this play, I have used the Scenic Anthropology, the study of the man in representation situation, reading its history from the scenic, extra-daily plane. Also we have made a trip by the route of Javier, in India: from Goa, to Trivrandrum, and Chennay (Madrás), visiting the holy places, and the Research center of Xavier.
         In order to write a scenic work on an historical personage it is necessary to be based, evidently, in history, extending the historical determinism. The properly dramatic interest is pronounced in the true flower, not in the unusual flower. The unusual from the history of San Francisco the Javier it is, looking it today, the Conquest and the Inquisition, by his violent procedure, and its blind dogma; and the true thing, which remains until today, is the spirit that moved it to be missionary in East, to spread the good new. This dramaturgically glance, on the life of Xavier, focuses particularly its works (drama-érgon: work), its holy works, and the actions that wove their way in East. The selection of events was born of a scenic necessity, that is to say, with poetic license. What it happens in the single scene only happens in the scene, the others is reality. And, although the scenic reality is not the reflection of the daily reality, but what remains invisible, his job is to recreate, to return to create, teaching what remains, and the quintessence that summarizes its truth in artistic beauty. The specifications of the scenic language generate, in fact, an own metaphysics of the scenic space. This Metaphysical necessity is born of the same route that draws up, the way of Santo Tomas, in East. It is a metapath, or a goal further on. Since he was a kid, Javier wonders: What will have beyond mountains?
               The spiritual nomad is winged argonaut, a mercurian messenger, chaski of quipus, a coolí of perals, somebody that takes a message from one place to another, that it transports the new, the good a new. He is not a vagabond without goal, but a traveler that crosses the path with veracity and love, knowing perfectly his goal. Making the way when walking, he makes the will of God: he takes the Gospel to East.
          Such event causes many problems, the colonial inquisitor imposture hits against the innate rebel spirit of the Eastern towns, that resist to the conquest, and the foreign religion. The Catholic religion, in those centuries, was instrument of Conquest and the Inquisition, serving the interests of the colonial expansion. However, Javier, beyond intentions colonial of Empire Portuguese, following the footsteps of apostle Santo Tomas, that traveled by the south of India, and arrived until China, takes the message of Jesus until recondite places. Tomas died in Chennay (old Madrás), on the east coast of India, in the gulf of Bengal on the Indian Ocean. The first Christians of India calls themselves Tomists, had received from the Apostle an original Christianity, which adapted, with the passage of the centuries, to their native rites. San Francisco arrives in the middle of s.XVI, when the Company of Jesus has revolutionized the old church, opening new borders to the spiritual thought, and giving alternative to the brutal methods of “tabula rasa”. Francisco Javier, in travel diary, complaint of the way that the Portuguese conquerors use to subjugate Eastern ones. Let us remember that it is, indeed, a Portuguese captain, Alvaro de Ataíde da Gama, who oppose him, and impede the mission to China, the one that precipitates its death. His main antagonist was companion in the outward journey to Goa, India, to that, ingenuously, trusts its yearnings, without knowledge that is going to be its worse enemy. Like a Yago, of Otelo, the Moor of Venice, of Shakespeare, jealous by not to be named Ambassador of China, Alvaro de Ataíde Da Gama hamper the captain Diego Pereira to go with Francisco Javier until China, and he retains them in Malaca. There is the tragic knot of its life. Never, in his all his life, he felt so persecuted.
 Of ardent temperament, she was a glad person. Francisco Javier characterizes itself by his humility, and rigor in the fulfillment of his to have. The man and saint are confused in a single intention, in a single way. Descending until profane it, he places to us in the threshold of holiness. In his trip, as ship impelled by the Holly Wind, he transfers the limits of the imaginary thing, and he takes us to the territory of the sacred myth, where the miracles happen as if they did not happen. The extraordinary thing makes presence: their miracles give testimony of the Divine Will, not demanding anything for him, with total detachment by the fruits of the work, with humility, teaches the necessary weather to us for a true missionary. It was recognized, from his death to now, as Missionary of East, Protector of Missionary works, Protector of the Tourism, and Prince of the Missionaries. Like protector of the travelers, as San Cristobal, the Virgin of Carmen, San Rafael Archangel, and other guardians of the ways, are represented, in the popular iconography, in a way, accompanied by maps, with the Bible in the right hand, before the sea (water), after the mountain (the Earth), under an open sky (air), and with the fire burning in its chest. Like a martyr who signals from the bonfire (To Artaud), Xavier burns in his faith of traveler. San Francisco Javier is the flame that burns in the way, the tea that illuminates the footpaths of East. The historical theater has many antecedents. In fact, many dramatists were based on historical events: Sophocles, Shakespeare, Calderon, Goethe, etc. But the Epic Theater of Bertolt Brecht contributes not only with historical foundations, but the narrative, own spacing of history. Aside from its historical materialism, the work of B. Brecht and its method of estrangement, contain a political commitment, and a sense of social justice. The hero takes step to the antihero, history its now seen from the under, from the social base, and not from above, the summit of the pyramid. Who constructed pyramids of Egypt, Bertolt Brecht asks to us. They were not the Pharaohs, but the slaves those that loaded stones!
After the psychological influence of C. Stanislawsky, historical science, in the social thing, served to the scene from principles of century XX. Peter Weiss, also taking from Antonin Artaud its mythical concept of cruelty, and Brecht its historical contribution, propose "14 Thesis for a Documentary Theater". The most barren document can become a scenic document. Everything depends on the estrangement that we give him, to be able to observe it of another form, distanced. The affirmations that the Powers usually do, the impositions that the powerful ones do to the humble ones, become questions; the bureaucratic information become songs; the statistics you cold, become alive testimonies. The time is once, the place: far away. To the scene the witnesses concur to whom never the word occurred them, the anonymous personages. The historical document becomes raw material of the drama, with new instruments. Also Hegel, in the Phenomenology of the Spirit, refers the culture like estrangement. The man distances from the nature through the culture. The culture is, also, a process of spacing, or estrangement, of the nature. Hegel reunites the history and the Spirit. The intervention of God in history does participate in the Divine will. Thus, history (distanced, been strange) surpasses the fatalistic determinism, hoax of the powerful ones, the past dead, and encyclopedic, and it is revealed as it builds of the great demiurge. In 1898, Alfred Jarry, with Pére Ubú, already had put History in doubt, when he locates Poland in no place. It seems an irony, but it has been the same History the one that is the one in charge, time and time again, to erase Poland from the map, crossing site for the European armies in his mutual wars.
 On the other hand, History, with capital letter, has been put in disbelief. The encyclopedics ideals to summarize in the libraries (or cybernetic collections, or virtual) the knowledge of the man, among them History, failed nonsingle to treat about neither a preposterous idea, nor being relative a social science, without fixed laws, but because the same concept of History (with capital letter) decayed, taking step to history (with small letter). Thus we can speak of micro-history, put-history, or historical metaphor, of fable, “mitema”, etc. In fact, in Eastern India and other cultures, History does not exist as we understand it in the West: prey of a linear time, fixed social laws, or a destiny inescapable, or preexisting. The time, for the Prohibitions, is Mayan, illusion. In the Indian theater the tragedy concept does not exist either, like in old Greece, since the death is not an aim, but a beginning of another vital cycle, where the actions that were not fulfilled in this life, will be fulfilled in the other. In East, the temporary story is not properly historical, but mythical, because still he remains taken root in the spirit. The unit of time and space is different from the Aristotelian one. He is previous, and original, because one is based on the oral tradition. When the word is alive, it transfers the times; when it is dead, him slogan and is registered in papers, having treated to mummify it and to perpetuate it like established truth. Alive history and true surpasses the times, through the poetic stories that keep the diverse cultures, and it is not shown in official documents. Classic, and official, history, fixes pathetic images of historical personages, to its arrangement, enthroning them in public monuments, or ignoring them according to its convenience, disappearing them, erasing them from documents, or degrading them to the paper of villains. The art is in charge to lower them of the pedestal, and to consider them in its human dimension, with its virtues and weakness. The art is in charge to rescue the lost memory, giving presence to which they did not have it. From Antonin Artaud, the theater narrates the extraordinary thing, when approaching the mythical signs. History, with capital letter, ignores frequently to history, with small letter, and is indeed there, in the very small thing, where he is the extraordinary thing. In the minimum it is the maximum, in except the plus. The undressed history of its false clothes, for the art, appears to us like fable, or mitema. The oral narration, the multiple voices that arrive to us from the past, is transcribed in alive documents, in rites, dances and theaters. The echoes of our ancestors are not dead. The historical document locks up a voice that must be animated. Not represented, in the classic sense, it is to say merged, but absorbed of the present and future time, that is to say, taken outside the time. The theater works, from the empty space, a put-time, and put-space. History can be considered like one mummy to be revive with mimetic procedures, neither archaeological, nor of art museum. The discernment, or poetic estrangement consists of sifting the time and the passed space, to remove it from the historical reality, and to pass it to a poetic reality. The poetry, that must everything to the memory, does not have anything to the historical reality, but to its documented truth, that can consider like raw material. The search, or historical investigation, for a dramatist, mainly consists, in the search of Gold Threads, dramatic threads, and their knots, eventful journeys, catastrophes, caesura, striae, erasure, errors, etc., with the purpose of composing coherent actions for the scene and, thus, tending the warp and the plot to weave, to write the text of a work. The scenic truth is different from the daily truth, has other laws, another one is its behavior.
When Sophocles or Shakespeare takes an historical personage for their tragedies, they only take their relevant characteristics, leaving of side the temporary and local circumstances. History appears like pretext for the drama, as the drama has other pretexts, are psychic, spiritual, symbolic, or scenic, but simply anyway conditional by the own necessities of these arts. What is important for history, for the scene can seem insignificant, and what for history he is insignificant, for the scene it can be very important. Let us see a very well-known example: when Antonin Artaud interpreted to Carlo Magno, under the direction of Jean Louis Barrault, which requested to him to enter by a lateral one, and to seat in the throne, it did it, but... Crawling! This caused a conflict, how was possible that an emperor as Carlo Magno, went to the throne crawling...? Also we know the oil Nabucodonosor, William Blake, prostrated in four legs, naked and sniffing. And to Bolivar, of Garcia Márquez, in the General in its Labyrinth, spiting blood, wire drawing in a hammock, in the middle of the heat and the mosquitoes. The measurement is human, is to say fallible and mortal, so is Alexander, Ghengis Khan, Napoleón, Bolivar, or any great character. The hero, from Alfred Jarry, is antihero. But still, from the Woysek de Buchner, the heroes took step to the antiheroes. F. Nietzche he announced the aim of the apollonian thing, and the return of the dionisiaco. The Gods have returned to the scene, but not had with the classic forms, but with new forms that overflow the old aesthetic parameters. The scenic revolution of century XX opened the door to the original spaces of representation, that is to say, it did not invent new vanguards, but it undressed the art of the clothes imposed by Classic History, revealing his spiritual and sacred origin again. The name of the work: “THE RED CRAB”, is inspired by the famous episode where a crab rescues crucible of Javier who has fallen to the enraged sea. The name of Javier, used with X, in this work, nonsingle is a poetic, own anachronism of the time, cause it takes the signal of the cross enrolled in the red crabs of the south of India, in the fishery’s, that take a cross in the back, and are called Crabs of San Francisco, in honor to the saint.
AFTER THE TRACKS DE XAVIER IN INDIA. Following the route of Xavier in India: of Panjim-Goa, to Cochin and Ernakulam, Trivandrum, and Madrás (Chennay), we made, Brenda Pole, professor of Eastern dances of Scenic Arts of the Javeriana University, and I, an investigation of field with the objective to complete the scenic text on its life and builds, where we visited the sanctuaries, and XAVIER CENTERS OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Historical Research center of Xavier.
The Novena for San Xavier is made from the 3 to the 11 of December of every year. We arrived at Panaji, Goa, to 3pm Sunday ,the day: 7 December of 2003,. We visited Kala Akademy, where we made a Theater Anthropology workshop of, and the presentation of a work. In the theater of Kala Academy they were presenting/displaying a piece on San Francisco Javier. We entered the moment of a scene where a dove descends from the sky, on Xavier, it is extasiado, and he kneels down. When coming out, put of sun, we remembered the dream of Brenda: Xavier helps us to load the suitcases of trip.
Other day I dream with the foot of Xavier, in sandals, being above this barren earth, sign from entrance to a sacred place. The sandals seemed to be like the ones of San Francisco de Asi's entering barren earth, (in the Museum of the basilica there is a single sandal). We visited the Cathedral del Bon Jesus, composed of a single huge ship, extensive, without seats. A woman, an Indian devotee of the Christianity, was praying seated in the floor, to the way of the Eastern temples. It is necessary to enter barefoot, without shoes, like in other temples of India. In all the walls there are oil paintings, testimonies of the time. The baroque ostentation twists the form. The colonial Church, associated to the conquest of the Portuguese Empire reproduces ambiguous images referring to the Portuguese power. The clergy and the military service did not get along very well in the centuries of the conquest of East.
In the Archaeological Museum, there are diverse exhibition halls: Indians antiques, and of the Portuguese period; in the exhibition stand out the clothes used in s.XVI. Exhibition of courtesan in poses of official pictures. The damage of the Catholic Inquisition is reflected in the severity of the forms, the faces and the suits. The Baroque art cover up, with those centuries of the pomp and the ostentation of the empire, the bodies and their expression.
In the Basilica of Bon Jesus the rests from San Francisco Javier are kept, in a ballot box exposed to the devotee ones, in time of the Novena. This produces a contradictory feeling: on the one hand, a deep withdrawal before the presence of the mortal rest of wonderful saint, and by another one a rejection to the cult to the death. The row advances slowly, one by one, until the ballot box. A special air is breathed, a sacred presence occupies all the stay. The body of Xavier is dressed very elegant. As well as the Franciscans, the Jesuits made vote of obedience, abstention and poverty. The austerity that in life had Xavier contrasts with the prosperity that it has in death. The fetishism, necrophilia, and idolatrous of something dead, has the danger to untie the religious fanaticism of the town. Jesus is God of alive, not of dead! The sacred relics of Francisco Javier renew and affirms the faith. The testimony of its life and work serves to affirm the faith of the believers. The body mummified, incorrupt, still making miracles, and giving testimony, from further on, of the divine will. What appears idolatrous is the contextual coating, and the fetishist rituality that hinder the town, the left-over goods of the colonial and inquisitive Church. Luckily, the spirit of Xavier is beyond such appearances. Although the body this incomplete one, its right arm, call miraculous arm, was taken to Rome, asi like the phalange of the right foot. The sacred relics have been exposed in 1686, 1782, 1859, 1818, 1890, 1910, 1923, 1928, 1952, 1984.., 2003. It was called: Glorious Apostle, Defender of East and Protector de Indies. The town gave the title of Goencho Saib, which means The Sir from Goa. After being canonized the 12 of March of 1622, in 1748 was declared Protector of East. In 1904 Universal Protector of the Missions was named. He also received the title of Protector of the Tourism, and Prince of the Missionaries.
Near there are the ruins of the temple of San Agustín, of gothic structure, where the sobriety was characteristic. The ample spaces of the multiple ships, still conserve the spirit of that time prebaroque. In the Museum of History of Goa, in Panjin, between many other things of historical interest, “Mesa”, which means table, of the Inquisition calls the attention. The furniture has, in the four legs, carvings four lions; and in the center an eagle. Royal authority symbols. On that table they judged, and they decided the persecution, the torture and the martyrdom of a lot of people, in the name of God. The imposture that made the powers political, military and ecclesiastical, of that time falsified the original Christianity. It is necessary to undress all the Portuguese colonial coating, associated to the Catholic Inquisition, regime of terror, to include/understand better the spirit of Javier. The images of the time are own interpretations. The forms do not correspond to Jewish history, of the time of Jesus. The religious images correspond to the Italian Renaissance. Same as the images of Xavier, interpreted by the baroque art, are distanced of the own sobriety of the Navarrese missionary. The cortesano art was in charge to reproduce its own images. The deconstruction of History (with capital letter) allows to see history us (with small letter). The imposture of the classic forms of the European Renaissance on the original images of the Jewish Christ, transforms nonsingle the outer representation, but that deforms the message, and they change the essence. Reproducing a colonial and inquisitive Christ, the Christ of the Passion, they instilled horror, for benefit of the imperial conquest of Portuguese Corona. Francisco Javier followed the route of Santo Tomás in India, by the ways of Kerala. In The Legends of St. Thomas in Kerala, of Susan Visvanathan, we found a story on the miracles of the Tomás Apostle: "In Julio, the day of Full Moon, was in a Brahmin district, then passage by one of the sacred swimming pools where many were bathing brahmines. They took water between their hands and they sent it to the air. Tomas asked why they did that to them, and a Brahmin talked back to him, "We are it to the Gods." Takings said, "and, porqué the Gods refuse their offering? Watch, the water returns down, to the swimming pool. The Brahmines responded: That is natural in the water, she always will come down like a cascade. Then, the Apostle took a little from water between his hands, and he sent it to the air. And the drops stayed suspended as crystal gems, and on the feet of Tomás it brought forth a cluster of wonderful flowers, of exquisite fragrance. Many of the Brahmines that were present at this one miracle, requested to be baptized by Santo Tomás." After the tracks of the Missionary of East, we were until Chennay (old Madrás), place where Santo Tomás lived and died, and was San Francisco Javier. Chennay is located in the coast this of India, on the gulf of Bengal. About the trip in train, I think about the commentary of Delio de Mendonca, the Director of the Center Xavier, on the stature of santo. It said that it would have to be of medium stature, like those of Navarre. Of the stature of San Ignacio de Loyola, that was medium. In Madrás is Monte Grande and Monte Pequeño, the sanctuaries of Santo Tomas, that contain the relics: a small piece of the rib that, according to the legend, crossed the lance of its twig, while it prayed of backs, sunk before a rock that served to him as altar. Another legend tells that a hunter of pavorreales confused it with a Pavoreal, and he killed it by accident. The Pavo real is the symbolic animal of India. This version, certain or no, is a fable that contains true symbols. In Monte Grande they raised a chapel that commemorates the sacred place, where attend the devotee ones. There are paintings of the Apostle, in the scene of their martyrdom, and the altar with the sacred relic. In Monte Pequeño it is the cave where it prayed, with the rock recorded by its hands and arms. Same as the stone altar with the cross recorded with its blood. According to history, when it was besieged by his pursuers, thanks to an earthquake whom the cave shook, and opened a hole, Tomas could escape. In that same place there is a rock recorded with the foot of the Apostle, where they have constructed minaret. To touch rocks, the places where the Apostle of Jesus, the same one who touched his wounds, cured the faith doubts to us. "If I do not see in its hands the signal of the nails and I do not put my finger in the hole of the nails and I do not put my hand in its flank, I will not believe". Until not seeing not believe, so it is our doubt. "It approaches your finger and here you have my hands; it brings your hands and put it in my flank, and you are not incredulous but believing. Tomas I answer to him: !My Lord, my God!". I gave It Him Jesus: You have believed because you have seen me. Said those that seeing do not even create." (Jn, 20, 24¬-29).
BIBLIOGRAFIA: RECONDO, JOSE MARIA, "SAN FRANCISCO JAVIER". BAC Biographies. Library of Christian Authors. Madrid, 1999. JAVIER, SAN FRANCISCO, "Letters and written of SAN FRANCISCO JAVIER". Library of Christian Authors, Madrid, 1996. MARTINSO, JERRY and GO, JONNY, "After the passages of Francisco Javier". Auxiliary guide Ed. San Pablo, Madrid, 1996. SANZ BURATA, LUIS, "San Francisco Javier". Ed. Vilamala, Barcelona 1961. TESCAROLI, CIRILLO, "San Francisco Javier". Ed. WITHOUT BORDERS, Quito. WOHL, LOUIS OF: "the East in Flames", novelada Biography of San Francisco Xavier. Ed. Word, Madrid 2000. PEMAN, JOSE MARIA, "Divine The Impatient One", Theater. Ed. EDIBESA, Madrid, 1997. ZUGASTI MIGUEL, an example of jesuítico theater in century XVIII, I engage in a dialog to San Francisco Javier between Navarre and India. Papers of India, V.24, ICCR, New Delhi, 1995. SCHURHAMMER GEORG, Francisco Javier. Its life and its time. Pamplona, 1992, 4 vols. MENDONCA DELIO, Jesuits in India, XAVIER CENTERS OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Goa, India. 2003. VISVANATHAN, SUSAN, The Legends of St. Thomas in Kerala.
CARD TECNIC SCENE: 8X6mts. Not-conventional.  LIGHTS: Candles. AND 18 REFLEC. BASIC COLORS. SOUND: Amplification CD, Casette. 5 microphones for instruments.

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